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BEER DICTIONARY

 
Ale: A beer brewed from hops, malt, and top-fermenting yeast. Varies from pale to dark amber in color, texture is smooth, and sweet, flavor is fruity, stronger, and more bitter than beer.
Amber: A beer named for its reddish-brown color, ranging from pale to dark.
Barley wine: A dark, rich, bittersweet beer with higher alcohol content.
Bitter: Amber ale with a fragrant bouquet whose dry, sharp flavor is produced from hops.
Bock: A strong, malty lager varying from pale to dark brown in color with an alcohol content around 6 percent by volume.
Brewpub: A brewery alongside an eatery or pub that sells beer on site.
Brown ale: Nutty, malty ale that’s dark brown in color with flavors ranging from dry to sweet.
Burton: Strong ale that’s dark brown in color with roasty malt flavors.
Cooper: Woodworker who crafts wooden beer kegs.
Dopplebock: A version of bock, meaning “double bock,” with a stronger alcohol content, varying from 8 to 13 percent by volume.
Draft (draught): A method of dispensing beer from a keg, cask, or bright tank.
Hard cider: A sweet fermented drink made from apples.
Hefeweizen: A refreshing, frothy wheat beer that is lighter in body, flavor, and alcohol content.
Holiday beer: A special seasonal brew varying from amber to dark brown in color with sweet flavor and often special spicy, fruity, or herby notes.
India Pale Ale (IPA): A pale ale that is profusely hoppy.
Kolsch: A mildly malty West German ale that is very pale in color and a bit tart in flavor.
Lager: A crisp, clean beer made with bottom-fermenting yeasts at near freezing temperatures for longer periods of time than ales.
Malt liquor: A malty lager that’s pale in color with an alcohol content above 5 percent by volume, as defined in the United States.
Pale ale: A highly hopped beer made from high-quality malt that’s dry in flavor.
Pilsner: A beer brewed from bottom-fermenting yeast. Very pale in color with a dry, hoppy flavor and aroma.
Porter: Ale brewed from well-roasted barley. Dark brown in color, full-bodied in texture, and bittersweet or chocolaty in flavor.
Pub: An abbreviation for “public house,” a gathering place that serves beer and often other alcoholic beverages on site.
Publican: A pub owner or manager.
Stout: A rich beer brewed from full-flavored roasted malts andtop-fermenting yeast, sometimes with caramel sugar and high hop content. Dark brown in color, full-bodied in texture, and slightly burnt in flavor.
Wheat beer: A beer brewed with wheat malt. Pale in color, medium-bodied in texture, and slightly tart in flavor.

Beer Brewing Terms

Additives: Enzymes, antioxidants, and preservatives added to a beer to preserve it or improve its shelf life.
Alcohol: Ethyl alcohol or ethanol, which results naturally from fermentation.
Anaerobic: An organism, or yeast in the case of beer, that thrives without oxygen.
Aroma hops: A hop variety chosen for its enhanced bouquet.
Barley: A grain that is malted for use in the mash during the brew process.
Bottle conditioning: The method of secondary fermenting or maturing in the bottle, which can develop a beer’s complexity.
Bottom-fermenting yeast: One of two strains of yeast used in brewing beer, essentially lagers, that responds best at lower temperatures and ferments more sugars for a cleaner flavor.
Black malt: Partially malted barley that is roasted at high temperatures and used to give beer its dark color and roasty flavor.
Brew kettle: A receptacle in which mash is boiled with hops.
Bright beer tank: See conditioning tank.
Bung: The plug used in the opening of a keg or cask.
Caramel: A less expensive cooked sugar used to add color and alcohol content to a beer.
Caramel malt: A sugary, amber-colored malt used to sweeten beer and increase head retention.
Carbonation: The natural carbon dioxide sparkle or bubble in beer that is produced in fermentation or injected artificially afterward.
Cask: A barrel-like, and often metal, receptacle for holding beer.
Cask conditioning: The method of secondary cask fermenting or maturing, which can develop a beer’s carbonation.
Chill haze: A haziness that appears in beers at low temperatures, due to protein-tannin compound precipitation.
Chill proof: Beers treated to resist chill haze.
Conditioning: The method of warm or cold secondary fermenting or maturing, which can develop a beer’s carbonation or complexity of flavor.
Conditioning tank: A receptacle or vessel used for conditioning beer.
Copper: See brew kettle.
Dextrin: An unfermentable carbohydrate found in malted barley, which gives beer its flavor and mouthfeel.
Dosage: A quantity of yeast and/or sugar added to the bottle or cask to facilitate conditioning.
Dry-hopping: The method of adding dry hops to fermenting or aging beer to increase hop quality or aroma.
Enzymes: The natural grain proteins that convert the malted barley starches to sugars or maltose in the heating phase of mashing.
Ethanol: A type of alcohol formed from yeast during fermentation.
Fermentation: The activation of yeast, which converts sugar into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide.
Filter: The brewing method by which impurities in the wort are removed. Yeast in suspension is often removed.
Final specific gravity: The measurement of a beer’s density after fermentation, as compared to water.
Fining: A substance that attracts suspended particles in beer and provides clarification.
Grist: The mixture of milled grains to be used in a specific brew.
Heat exchanger: A mechanism used to quickly reduce the wort temperature.
Infusion: Mash-making method in which malt is soaked in water and kept at one temperature.
Keg: A barrel or container for beer.
Lauter: The method of extracting malt sugars from the wort by raking through the mash tun.
Lauter tun: See mash tun.
Liquor: The water infusion used in malting, mashing, or sparging.
Malt extract: The processed mash now in the form of syrup or powdered sugar, with maltose and dextrins, which is then reactivated with water for fermentation.
Malting: The method of converting barley grain starches to maltose in order to begin fermentation.
Maltose: The fermentable malt sugar, which is water-soluble.
Mash: The resulting mixture that comes from soaking and cooking barley malt in water, wherein the fermentable sugars are released.
Mashing: The process of making mash.
Mash tun: A preparation tank used for turning mash into wort.
Mead: Substance produced when honey, water, yeast, and other possible additives like spices, herbs, or fruit are fermented.
Microbrewery: A small brewery that makes its own beer and sells less than 15,000 barrels a year.
Original gravity: See specific gravity.
Pasteurization: The method of heating beer to stabilize its microscopic organisms and their effects.
Pitch: The method of adding yeast to the wort.
Priming: The method of adding sugar to the beer in maturation to promote a secondary fermentation.
Secondary fermentation: The method of warm or cold secondary fermenting or maturing, which can develop a beer’s carbonation or complexity of flavor.
Secondary fermentation: After primary fermentation, which can be very active the beer is “racked” into another vessel for secondary fermentation. This helps remove some of the expired yeast which may give off negative flavors if left in. Secondary fermentation also helps with cl
Sediment: The yeasty substance at the bottom of a bottle of conditioned beer.
Sparge: The method of spraying the grist with hot water at the end of the mash in order to remove soluble sugars.
Specific gravity: The measurement of a beer’s density before fermentation, as compared to water.
Terminal gravity: See final specific gravity.
Top-fermenting yeast: One of two strains of yeast used in brewing beer, essentially ales, that responds best at warmer temperatures, ferments fewer sugars for a sweeter flavor, and sustains higher alcohol concentrations.
Tun: A large receptacle or vessel used in brewing beer.
Wort: The mixture of grain sugars filtered from the mash tun.
Wort chiller: See heat exchanger.
Yeast: A fungi that is added to wort, which aids in turning fermentable sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide.

Beer Tasting Terms

Acidic: A sour or sharp flavor characteristic.
Alcoholic: Warming effect of ethanol and higher alcohols.
Aroma: The nose or smell of a beer, ranging from fruity to malty, flowery to spicy, and more.
Astringent: A quality that produces a drying, puckering sensation of the gums and tongue.
Bacterial: A flavor suggestive of mold or mustiness often due to spoilage.
Balance: When a beer's elements, including the bouquet and palate are in perfect proportionate agreement with one another.
Bitter: A twinge or strong sensation noticeable at the back of the tongue.
Body: The texture and weight of a beer as perceived in the mouth. A beer may have thin or full body.
Bouquet: The nose or smell of a beer, ranging from fruity to malty, flowery to spicy, and more.
Bright: A visual quality, describing a beer’s clarity or color.
Cabbage-like: An aroma or flavor suggestive of cabbage often due to rotten wort.
Chlorophenolic: An aroma suggestive of plastic, usually resulting from chemical reactions between chlorine and phenol compounds.
Clove-like: A spicy flavor suggestive of clove often due to wild yeast.
Creamy: The texture and weight of a beer with good natural carbonation.
Dank: An aroma suggestive of mold.
Dry: A beer that finishes sharp in the mouth, not sweet.
Ester: Complex flavor mix produced naturally in fermentation, ranging from fruity and spicy to flowery.
Finish: The lingering aftertaste that remains in the mouth after swallowing a sip of beer.
Fruity: A sweet aroma or flavor suggestive of bananas, apples, pears, citrus, strawberries, and more.
Grainy: A flavor suggestive of raw grain or cereal.
Hang: A long-lingering bitterness or harshness that remains in the mouth after swallowing a sip of beer.
Hoppy: An aroma suggestive of hops.
Hops: The herb added to fermenting beer or boiling wort to produce a bitter flavor and aroma.
IBU (International Bitterness Units): A system that measures hop bitterness in beer.
Light-Struck: A taste fault suggestive of skunk, usually caused by overexposure to light.
Medicinal: A flavor or aroma suggestive of chemical, plastic, smoke, or cloves, usually resulting from wild yeast or sanitizer residue.
Mouthfeel: The texture and weight of a beer as perceived in the mouth. A beer may have a thin or full mouthfeel.
Musty: A stale or mildewy aroma or flavor.
Nose: See bouquet.
Oxidized: A rotting or stale flavor, usually resulting from overexposure to air or high temperatures during aging.
Palate: The complex taste or notes found in a beer, determined by well-proportioned hop, malt, and fruit.
Phenolic: A flavor or aroma suggestive of medicine, plastic, smoke, or cloves, usually resulting from wild yeast or sanitizer residue.
Salty: A flavor suggestive of table salt.
Shelf life: The period of time a beer remains at peak drinkability.
Skunky: A taste fault suggestive of skunk, usually caused by overexposure to light.
Solvent-like: A flavor or aroma suggestive of acetone, usually caused by high temperatures of fermentation.
Sour: An intense acidic or vinegary sensation along the sides of the tongue.
Sulfur-like: An aroma or flavor suggestive of sulfur or rotten eggs, usually resulting from a sulfur compound in some yeast varieties.
Sweet: A sugary taste quality noticeable at the tip of the tongue.
Tangy: An intensely piercing impression along the sides of the tongue.
Tart: An intensely sharp sensation along the sides of the tongue caused by acidic tastes.
Units of bitterness: See IBU.
Vinous: An aroma or flavor suggestive of wine.
Winy: Having the rich, fruity essence of a fine wine.
Yeasty: A flavor suggestive of yeast, usually resulting from beer sitting too long on sediment.

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